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This document has been published in the Federal Register. Use the PDF linked in the document sidebar for the official electronic format. EPA has reviewed New Hampshire's application and has determined that these changes satisfy all requirements needed to qualify for final authorization. Therefore, we are proposing to authorize the State's changes. EPA seeks public comment prior to taking final action. EPA's policy is that all comments received will be included in the public docket without change and may be made available online at www.
Do not submit information that you consider to be CBI or otherwise protected through www. The federal www. If you send an email comment directly to EPA without going through www. If you submit an electronic comment, EPA recommends that you include your name and other contact information in the body of your comment and with any disk or CD-ROM you submit.
If EPA cannot read your comment due to technical difficulties and cannot contact you for clarification, EPA may not be able to consider your comment. Electronic files should avoid the use of special characters, any form of encryption, and be free of any defects or viruses. Docket: All documents in the docket are listed in the www.
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Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, e. Certain other material, such as copyrighted material, will be publicly available only in hard copy. Publicly available docket materials are available either electronically in www. You can view and copy New Hampshire's application and associated publicly available materials from a. As the federal program changes, states must change their programs and ask EPA to authorize the changes. Changes to state programs may be necessary when federal or state statutory or regulatory authority is modified or when certain other changes occur.
Most commonly, states must change their programs because of changes to EPA's regulations in 40 Code of Federal Regulations CFR parts , through , , , and New federal requirements and prohibitions imposed by federal regulations that EPA promulgates pursuant to the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments of HSWA take effect in authorized states at the same time that they take effect in unauthorized states.
Thus, EPA will implement those requirements and prohibitions in New Hampshire, including the issuance of new permits implementing those requirements, until the State is granted authorization to do so.
Emerging Technologies in Hazardous Waste Management 8_rT2
Therefore, EPA Start Printed Page proposes to grant New Hampshire final authorization to operate its hazardous waste program with the changes described in the authorization application, and as outlined below in Sections F and G of this document. New Hampshire has responsibility for permitting treatment, storage, and disposal facilities within its borders and for carrying out the aspects of the RCRA program described in its revised program application, subject to the limitations of HSWA, as discussed above. If New Hampshire is authorized for the changes described in New Hampshire's authorization application, these changes will become part of the authorized State hazardous waste program and will therefore be federally enforceable.
New Hampshire will continue to have primary enforcement authority and responsibility for its State hazardous waste program. This action will not impose additional requirements on the regulated community because the regulations which EPA is proposing to authorize in New Hampshire are already effective and are not changed by today's proposed action.
If EPA receives comments on this proposed action, we will address all such comments in a later final rule. You may not have another opportunity to comment. If you want to comment on this authorization, you should do so at this time. On September 10, , the State of New Hampshire submitted a final complete program revision application, seeking authorization of changes to its hazardous waste management program in accordance with 40 CFR EPA proposes to determine, subject to receipt of written comments that oppose this action, that New Hampshire's hazardous waste program revisions are equivalent to, consistent with, and no less stringent than the federal program, and therefore satisfy all of the requirements necessary to qualify for final authorization.
EPA is proposing to authorize New Hampshire for the following program changes:. New Hampshire is seeking authorization for updated state regulations addressing most federal requirements through June 30, and also for changes to New Hampshire's base program for which they had been previously authorized. Significant program revisions in this package include the Land Disposal Restrictions and hazardous waste listings. We are proposing to authorize the program changes as provided in each of the following Revision Checklists RC :. RC —Recovered Oil Exclusion;. RC —Conformance with the Carbamate Vacatur;.
RC —Nonwastewaters from Dyes and Pigments;. RC —Removal of Saccharin and Its Salts from the Lists of Hazardous Constituents— There is no checklist for this rule because it removes provisions from the regulations. A detailed cross walk for each of the checklists mentioned above can be found in the administrative record for this Federal Register authorization. When revised state rules differ from the Federal rules in the RCRA state authorization process, EPA determines whether the state rules are equivalent to, more stringent than, or broader in scope than the federal program.
Such more stringent requirements can be federally authorized and, once authorized, become federally enforceable. Although the statute does not prevent states from adopting regulations that are broader in scope than the federal program, states cannot receive federal authorization for such regulations, and they are not federally enforceable. The most significant differences between the New Hampshire rules and the federal rules are highlighted and summarized in the Table 1 below.
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In tidal waters, another set of booms may be laid on the other side of the source in anticipation of current reversing. Figure Towing: If wind and current velocity are too high for stationary containment or if the oil is already widely scattered, booms can be towed at low speed less than 0.
Netting: This system consists of booms, buoys with anchors and weights laid upstream of the boom, and sheets of net. In cases where tarballs or mats are floating below the surface, nets are extended to the sea-bed from the skirt of the boom. Normally, this deployment method is used nearshore. Mooring: Booms may also be moored to conventional anchors or concrete blocks.
Usually, mooring ropes five times the depth of water are required, and when ropes of buoyant material are used, this must be compensated for by adding extra chain or weights to the ropes. They may be installed in special collection vessels; be self-contained and portable for small spills in harbour basins; and even mounted on shore. Belt-type skimmers are usually large and are installed in vessels.
An endless loop of rubber belting transports oil and debris to the vessel. Pinch rollers separate the oil from the belt and the oil is stored in a collection tank. Oleophilic ropes can also be used in a similar fashion Figure A loop of rope runs continuously across the water surface between a collection device which drives the ropes, and pulleys held by moorings. The ropes adsorb oil and carry it to a collection device where rollers squeeze the oil out of the ropes into a reservoir.
Rope systems are unaffected by floating debris and can be used in very shallow waters. They may be weir-type skimmers, adsorption separation type or induction type. The vessels have bow doors or ramps. Sweeping arms guide the floating oil-water layer into the vessel for separation and recovery. Compact and portable disc skimmers can be deployed in harbour basins to get at oil films adhering to piers and harbour walls. Modem dispersants used today are significantly less toxic than the oils they disperse. They can be used either pre-diluted with sea water or in a concentrate form.
For concentrate dispersants, treatment ratios of 1 : 10 to 1 : 20 dispersant : oil by volume are needed. Under rough sea conditions, less dispersant may be needed. The possible toxic effects of dispersed oil in the water column are a primary consideration when assessing the use of dispersants to deal with an oil spill. Recreational areas for instance, may be of little value from the biological point of view, but they may be important for some local economies.
In such cases, dispersants may be used relatively close to the shore. In most cases, oil slicks will float over reefs without causing damage to submerged corals and associated organisms. Using dispersants close to the reef is likely to increase the exposure to oil, with possible damage to some of the organisms.
- Emerging Technologies In Hazardous Waste Management Iv By Daniel William Tedder.
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Dispersant use over or near coral reefs should be avoided as far as possible. In shallow water, dispersed oil in the water column is likely to reach concentrations where it may harm or taint fish. Dispersant use is generally not recommended in shallow water spawning and nursery areas. Untreated municipal sewage is perhaps the most common cause of water pollution when the sewage is discharged into it. Disposal of urban and industrial sewage is one of the most difficult problems in water pollution control.
It is often feasible to use a submarine outfall to discharge waste effluents into unconfined coastal waters nearby, where the diluting and absorbing capacities of these waters greatly simplify treatment and disposal problems. But when the discharge is in confined waters, the risk of pollution is very high. Discharge into the harbour basin of raw sewage and grey waste from the harbour complex only exacerbates the problem. The main problem with sewage pollution is the introduction of pathogenic microorganisms into the water body, thereby posing a health hazard to those who come into contact directly or indirectly with the contaminated water.
The presence of faecal coliform bacteria is generally indicative of sewage pollution. The serious threat to public health and financial losses on account of poor fish quality make it necessary for the harbour master to accord a high priority to monitoring water quality for signs of faecal pollution and for ensuring that sewage and gray waste from the harbour complex is adequately treated and safely disposed of. It is also necessary for him to interact with the municipality on issues relating to sewage pollution of contiguous waters.
To ensure that there is no pollution from sewage generated in the harbour complex, the harbour master should take steps to provide for proper collection and disposal not only from shore facilities but also from fishing vessels using the harbour. Adequate toilet facilities should be made available for harbour users. Defecation in the open by people and by animals near the waterside should not be tolerated. Sewage effluent from a fishery harbour consists of: 1. Sewage from toilets; 2. Effluents from wash areas with detergents present; and 3. Effluents from fish cleaning operations. The combined effluent from a fishing harbour should ideally be connected to a municipal sewer to be taken away and treated with normal household sewage.
If such a sewer is not available within a reasonably economic distance, the effluent has to be treated before being discharged into a water course. Depending on the size of the fishing harbour, the effluent may be treated either via septic tanks and on-site natural treatment systems artisanal harbours only or via a proper sewage treatment plant coastal, offshore and distant-water harbours. In both cases, adequate space should be provided for the purpose. Artisanal harbours are more often than not situated in areas where the basic municipal infrastructure is very primitive or even totally lacking; introduction of sophisticated mechanical wastewater effluent treatment systems may also not be a viable option because of the costs involved.
Natural treatment systems, on the other hand, may be designed to take advantage of the physical, chemical and biological processes that occur when water, soil, plants, micro-organisms and the atmosphere interact. The processes involved in natural systems include many of those used in sophisticated mechanical treatment systems, such as sedimentation, filtration, gas transfer, adsorption, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, chemical oxidation, and biological conversion and degradation - plus others unique to natural systems such as photosynthesis, photo-oxidation and plant uptake.
In natural systems, the treatment process occurs at natural rates and tends to occur simultaneously in a single ecosystem reactor. In a mechanical system the processes occur sequentially in separate tanks at accelerated rates as a result of energy input. A 3-stage septic tank is a rectangular underground chamber divided internally into three compartments.
After coarse screening through a basket sump, the effluent is retained inside the compartments for a minimum period of three days; during this period, the solids in suspension settle to the bottom of the first compartment where they are attacked and digested by bacteria. As a result, the volume of sludge is greatly reduced and the effluent clarified to some extent.
Appropriate manholes should be provided over each compartment to enable sludge to be removed pumped out during maintenance. The dimensions of the chamber should be such that peak total daily effluent flows are retained for a minimum period of three days inside the tank. Obviously, the larger the volume to be treated the larger the tank should be. Various methods are available to reduce the volume of water to be treated, such as high pressure jet cleaners for hosing down operations largest consumer of water , automatic or spring-loaded taps over wash-hand basins and dual-flush action toilet flushing equipment.
The following guidelines may be used when calculating a harbour's total daily effluent flow rate. Auction hall flow rate 1 litre per kg of fish landed every day; 10 litres per square metre of covered area reduced to 2. Canteen services hot food cooked on premises flow rate 15 litres per serving per day This total volume should also be adjusted for peak summer conditions when fish handling and visiting crews increase in numbers. The effluent from the septic tank should then be piped for further treatment to one of several types of natural treatment systems. It should be discharged into a waterway or into the sea only as a last resort.
The applied water is either consumed through evapotranspiration or percolates vertically and horizontally through the soil profile. Any runoff is usually collected and reapplied to the system. This system needs a moderately slow soil permeability and in areas of high precipitation needs effluent storage. The effluent may be applied via sprinklers or furrows. Typical area requirements for this system are 15 to 45 acres per million litres of effluent per day. The water depth in this system is typically very shallow, ranging in depth from 0. Subsurface flow systems are designed for secondary or advanced levels of treatment.
These systems have also been called root zone or rock reed filters and consist of channels or trenches with relatively impermeable bottoms filled with sand or rock media to support emergent vegetation. Lack of a free water surface also makes it ideal for areas prone to mosquitoe infestation. Effluent storage is needed in areas of high precipitation. Typically, 4 to 14 acres per million litres of effluent treated daily are required.
Floating aquatic plant systems are similar in concept to free water surface systems except that the plants are floating species such a water hyacinth and duckweed. Water depths are typically deeper, ranging from 0. Supplementary aeration has been used with floating plant systems to increase treatment capacity and to maintain aerobic conditions necessary for the biological control of mosquitoes. For this reason, the ponds should be stocked with mosquito fish. Area requirements are similar to other wetland systems. Vegetation is not usually provided.
Hence, most of the applied effluent percolates through the soil profile where treatment occurs. The treatment potential of rapid infiltration systems is somewhat less than that for slow rate systems because of the lower retention capacity of the soil and the relatively higher inflow of water. In locations where the groundwater level is high such as in coastal areas or the underlying strata not permeable enough, pressure-dosed field trenches have been successfully used Figure 54a. Pressure distribution, which serves to distribute the effluent evenly over the sand in the trench, is a key factor contributing to the success of this type of disposal.
The effluent in this system is pumped from the septic tank through a piped pressure distribution system placed at the apex of the gravel layer. Mound systems have been used in areas where the soils are permeable and the water table very high or the soils not permeable at all. The system works well only if the water accumulated under the mound can be pumped away. This system requires mechanical pumping at all stages of the treatment and may not be suitable in areas which lack a steady power supply.
This question cannot be answered until the site has been evaluated by a competent geologist. The detailed site evaluation should include identification of the soil characteristics, percolation coefficients and hydrogeological characterization of the area. From these investigations it should be possible to determine the hydraulic assimilation capacity of the area, that is the suitability of the area to receive septic tank effluent without jeopardising the environment and public health groundwater.
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