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He moved to the University of Melbourne for a post-doctoral fellowship where he continued his research in diamond synthesis and applications of single colour centres. He joined Macquarie University in Sydney in and has built an international reputation for diamond based applications in quantum science and biological imaging. Free Access. Summary PDF Request permissions. Tools Get online access For authors. Email or Customer ID. Forgot password? Old Password. New Password. Password Changed Successfully Your password has been changed. Squares 10 , pentagons 11 , star 12 , cross 13 and triangles 14 correspond to the values found in the cited references.

The values in ref. The Kerr effect in semiconductors can originate from absorptive processes presenting a quadratic dependence on the excitation field, such as 2PA, electronic Raman effect and optical Stark effect 17 , The Stark contribution is negative for all frequencies bellow the bandgap and becomes relevant only near the band edge, while the Raman contribution is small throughout the whole spectrum. Thus, the solid line in Fig. As it can be seen, there is a good agreement between the experimental data and the model represented in Eq.

It is worth noting, however, that in ref.

At the picosecond regime excited state contributions may affect the determination of a pure electronic Kerr response, as opposed to femtosecond laser pulses, thus explaining the discrepancy. In order to confirm the response time of the nonlinear refraction of diamond optical Kerr gate OKG measurements were performed. Such measurements were carried out in different regions of the spectrum, specifically at 2. This result reveals an instantaneous response time at the scale of the laser pulses used in our experiment fs , revealing that the birefringence induced by the pump beam follows the pulse temporal shape.

Therefore, the Kerr effect obtained herein for diamond corresponds to an ultrafast electronic optical nonlinearity. Optical Kerr gate signal obtained for the excitation of diamond at 2. The continuous line corresponds to a Gaussian fit, where one obtains the FWHM width of fs that corresponds to the previously characterized pulse duration.

Similar results were obtained for excitation at 2. The theoretical predictions reveal that the effect of two-photon absorption is dominant for the dispersion of n 2. Measurements of optical Kerr gate confirm that the nature of such optical nonlinearity arises from a pure electronic process, since it occurs in a time scale shorter than the pulse duration fs. The determination of the third-order nonlinear spectrum of diamond reported herein is important for the development of an integrated nonlinear and quantum optics platform with applications in a wide spectral range.

Confocal fluorescence imaging measurements of the sample showed no significant fluorescence, confirming the high purity.

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Open and closed aperture Z-scan measurements were performed to study the nonlinear absorption and the nonlinear refraction, respectively. Linear polarization was oriented perpendicularly to [] crystallographic direction. A beam splitter was placed after the sample to provide a dual arm configuration, such that closed and open aperture Z-scan measurements were simultaneously carried out. The effect of the nonlinear absorption on the nonlinear refraction measurement was deducted by performing the ratio of the refractive closed aperture by the absorptive open aperture Z-scan signatures.

Silicon or germanium photodetectors according to excitation wavelength , coupled to a lock-in amplifier, were used to monitor the sample transmittance along its propagation, over a 16 mm scan-range. An additional setup of second-harmonic or third-harmonic generation was used to provide pulses from 2. This estimate is based on comparison with fused silica measurements, which was used as reference material 25 to check the accuracy of the absolute values of n 2.

The time response of the nonlinearity was investigated using the optical Kerr gate OKG , in which the same laser system and OPA were employed as the excitation source. Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Juliana M. Almeida, Email: rb. Cleber R.

How is That Diamond Moving? This Optical Illusion Is Important for Science

National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Sci Rep. Published online Oct Almeida , Charlie Oncebay , Jonathas P. Jonathas P.

Optical Engineering of Diamond | Wiley Online Books

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Received Jun 28; Accepted Oct This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Although diamond photonics has driven considerable interest and useful applications, as shown in frequency generation devices and single photon emitters, fundamental studies on the third-order optical nonlinearities of diamond are still scarce, stalling the development of an integrated platform for nonlinear and quantum optics.

Introduction Diamond presents a striking combination of mechanical, thermal and optical properties, which has prompted its investigation for the development of a new generation of photonic devices that are expected to overcome the silicon limitations 1. Results and Discussions Because diamond crystal lattice presents inversion symmetry, due to its cubic structure, second-order optical nonlinearities are absent and, therefore, third-order processes are the lowest order ones, being the most relevant for diamond photonics.

Open in a separate window. Figure 1. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 4. Author Contributions J. Notes Competing Interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. Footnotes Publisher's note: Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Contributor Information Juliana M.

Thermal management of lasers and LEDs using diamond

References 1. Diamond photonics. Nature Photonics.


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Sipahigil A, et al. An integrated diamond nanophotonics platform for quantum-optical networks. Written by 39 experts in the field, it gives readers an up-to-date review of the properties of optical quality synthetic diamond single crystal and nanodiamond and the nascent field of diamond optical device engineering. Application areas covered in detail in this book include quantum information processing, high performance lasers and light sources, and bioimaging. It provides scientists, engineers and physicists with a valuable and practical resource for the design and development of diamond-based optical devices.

He obtained his PhD in the plasma kinetics of high power metal vapor lasers in His postdoctoral research has included laser? Since returning to Macquarie University in , he has pioneered research in diamond Raman lasers.


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  • He has over publications and several patents. He obtained his PhD research from Heriot-Watt University in Edinburgh, Scotland in diamond chemical vapour deposition and cavity ring-down spectroscopy of diamond forming plasmas.


    1. The writings of Herman Melville, Volume 12.
    2. Legion of the Dead (Barnaby Grimes, Book 3).
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    He moved to the University of Melbourne for a post-doctoral fellowship where he continued his research in diamond synthesis and applications of single colour centres.