Therefore, Waikiki in 3b can be regarded as a logical subject of a "sentential" predicate kyengchi-ka coh-ta 'landscape [is] good', whereas Waikiki is more discourse prominent than kyengchi-ka'. These similarities suggest that the 'EXP' NP in 1b is not just a canonical argument but plays some additional role in discourse, being discourse-prominent. In section 2, the concept of a discourse role in the sense of Sells is briefly illustrated based on long-distance reflexives data.
In section 3. In section 4. Section 4. Yet another option cf. Solncev , Z. We do not consider 3c in detail but concentrate on 3b , which is neutral. Sells : long-distance reflexives and prominent discourse roles. First, consider standard cases of long-distance pronouns subject-orientation.
In 4a , the antecedent of caki-lul 'self-ACC' can be the matrix clause subject Johni- un long-distance instance of caki or the embedded clause subject Billj-ka the short-distance instance of caki. Chelswui-nun and Swunik-ka : 5 a. The use of such verbs see notes 2, 17 is consistent with the 'subject of a psychological state' discourse role analysis. The data on the three cases are given in sections 3.
Lee In 7 , only translation A consistent with usually Agent when it is in a subject position , but it can also be Source as in 5a. Also, case-marking of an NP-candidate for a bearer of a discourse role is relevant. Non-stative verb sentences obey none of these restrictions. A 'ST' NP, on the contrary, can be focus of a wh-question 10b.
Nwu-ka ku kay-ka mwusep-ni? Ne-nun nwu-ka mwusep-ni? A "regular" topic in an embedded clause is nominative cf. Experiencer of stative psych predicates in Korean 7 3. Certain restrictions shown in 3. However, restrictions on embedding and wh-question foci do not hold. Consider the following data. Heycock and Lee stative psych verb NOM-NOM sentences such as 1c are grouped together with "double-nominative" constructions such as 3c. However, native speakers e. Harada, p.
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Yoon, p. Enu kos-i kyengchi-ka coh-ni? Waikhikhi-nun mwues-i coh-ni? Examples of non-psych stative verbs are given in 18 philyoha-ta 'be-needed', aphu-ta 'be-in-pain'. Non-psych stative verbs do not display most of the restrictions on psych verbs shown in section 3. Relativization: in a relative clause, the 'TH' NP can be relativized, unlike in the case of psych stative verbs, cf. Experiencer of stative psych predicates in Korean 9 20 a. Embedding: embedding of non-psych stative verb sentences is not entirely neutral 21 , but not as degraded as in case of psych verbs 9b.
Nwu-ka haksayng-i philyoha-ni? Haksayng-un nwukwu-ka philyoha-ni? The Sells's discourse-based account for the facts in section 3 In section 4. Analysis of the data from section 3. Based on the claim that the TOP 'EXP' is a bearer of a discourse role, these restrictions are accounted for in the following way.
The 'EXP' NP is highly preferred in the sentence- initial position; this NP resists embedding both as a complement and as a relative clause but is preferably located in a matrix clause. Since it is "given", it resists being a wh-question focus whose denotation is a set of alternative candidates. As it was shown in section 3. These differences follow from the fact that the TOP NP in these cases is not bearer of any discourse role and, therefore, is not very discourse prominent.
According to our account see Rudnitskaya, to appear , the reason for that is the following. Ecey na-nun san-eyse kkweng-ul cap-ass-e-yo c. Therefore, only an NP which can be a topic can be relativized. Lee and Kim , Kim The source of ungrammaticality here would be presence of a syntactic position of topic in a relative clause cf. The reason for this is that the 'EXP' NP in a stative non-psych sentence is not "subject of a characteristic property", the rest of the sentence is not predicated over it, thus it can stay inside a relative clause when the NOM 'TH' NP is relativized.
For detailed arguments against this approach, see Rudnitskaya, to appear. The discourse prominent status of the TOP NP causes syntactic restrictions only to psych stative verbs, but not stative verbs from other lexical classes.
Thanks to the members of the Colloquiums and participants of the conferences for useful comments. Chappel, H. In Payne, D. In colloquial speech, 1-st person 'EXP' or 2-nd person in a question is preferred. Experiencer of stative psych predicates in Korean 13 Erteschik-Shir, N.
Tense and aspect in Korean / Sung-Ock S. Sohn | National Library of Australia
Linguistics 25, pp. Heycock, C. Stanford: SLA Publications. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 2, pp. Hirotani, M. Hong, T. In Lander, Yu. Yu eds. Moskva: Gnozis.
Tense And Aspect In Korean (Monograph (Center For Korean Studies), No 18)
Jayaseelan, K. Studia Linguistica 50, pp. Jo, M. Keenan, E.
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